Abstract: Small-scale distributed energy sources and storage systems are proliferating in low-voltage grids. Electronic power converters (EPC) are the devices of the choice for interfacing such energy resources to the grid and interconnecting different electrical domains. The control challenges relevant to the grid-tied operation to the AC grid, the autonomous operation, coordination between different EPC and the transitions between the operation modes will be discussed. Moreover, several control issues related to the EPC control in dc microgrids, including stability monitoring tools, impedance shaping and tuning of control parameters, droop control, resistive output impedance and reduction of the output capacitance. The effects of control delays due to the digital implementations on the closed-loop output impedance will be also discussed.
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